What Are The Most Common Problems With Trailer Couplers?
Several issues can crop up when using a ball and coupler mechanism.
Wrong Size Ball or Coupler
If you find that the ball on the back of your truck is different from the size of the coupler, the last thing you want to do is to proceed to hook up and drive away. If the coupler is too tight (which happens if the ball is too big), the coupler will not latch correctly. The result is a trailer that cannot rotate on the hitch ball when it needs to do so (turns and curves). This situation can lead to complete damage to the hitch system because the torque has to be distributed somewhere. (Don’t be surprised if the coupler extension bends or looks warped from the tow).
If the tow ball is too small, the coupler cannot latch tightly on the ball. The coupler bounces on the ball and can become separated. Either way, a wrong size of ball or coupler can end up causing an accident.
Wrong-Sized Coupler or Hitch Ball
The first thing you should do is ensure you have the right size ball mounted on the tow vehicle. Many manufacturers stamp or sticker the correct ball size needed on the trailer tongue. Look for the information on the trailer, or take a tape measure and find out what the size of your coupler is. Measure from the inside of the cup. Match the coupler and ball size exactly. Another good idea is to take the ball in your hands, fit it into the coupler before you bolt it onto the receiver mount.
If the trailer ball and coupler size don’t match, change the hitch ball on the ball mount extending from the receiver hitch. Most trailers have a 1 ⅞” - 2” or 2 5/16” - 3” coupler size.
Remember: the coupler size and the ball size must match!!!
The Coupler is Misaligned - It Does Not Lock
The coupler must sit on the hitch ball perfectly with the latch clamp locked into place. If the coupler does attach properly, the trailer could become disconnected from the tow vehicle.
(This happened to a friend of mine once. He was driving down the interstate just to glance towards the median to see his trailer plowing through the grass).
The little latch on top of the coupler is a locking mechanism switch. By folding it down, the coupler locks around the ball while it pivots during turns but stays connected during normal towing operations.
If the latch is not secured, then the vibration of the trailer or road surface bumps can cause the latch to disengage. If this happens, you are just a couple of good bumps that sway from everything happening as your trailer disconnects.
The Coupler is Misalinged Or Does Not Lock
There are some things you can do to ensure that your coupler is securely attached to the truck’s hitch ball.
- First, Don’t Rush. Take your time when connecting your trailer. Don’t rush through the coupling process because you are late getting to the lake. Take your time to hook your trailer to your truck.
- Second, Use The Locking Pin. Once the latch lever is down and locked, use a cotter pin inserted in the holes to keep the latch lever in the locked position. Many trailer owners forget to use this simple cotter pin and are sorry later.
- Third, Use Safety Chains. Many states have requirements dictating safety chains when towing a load. Safety chains are always a good idea because they add a fail-safe for the slim chance that your trailer’s coupler might become disconnected from the towing vehicle’s hitch. The chains should be crisscrossed under the trailer tongue. The chains will keep your trailer connected to the tow vehicle and allow a driver time to slow to a stop without causing an accident.
Rust - Corrosion on the Hitch Ball or Inside Coupler
Rust deposits can interfere with the operation of the hitch ball or the trailer coupler. The corrosion can act as an inhibiting force, making it difficult for the couple to make and keep a secure connection. Regular maintenance on the hitch ball and a trailer coupler can ensure both operate correctly.
Rust or corrosion caused by exposure to the elements
Regular maintenance is necessary to keep the coupler and ball in good shape.
- Oil or lubricate the hitch ball and the inside of the coupler. The lubricant will assist the ball in moving freely and create a barrier to prevent rust from forming.
- Regularly clean and scrape old dried lubricant or corrosion out of the coupler. Painting the inside of the coupler with rust-inhibiting paint can also create a barrier between the elements and metal of the coupler.
- Keep the hitch ball covered. Since rust forms more quickly on exposed metal, keeping the hitch covered when not in use can help prevent corrosion.
- Replace the ball if needed. It is easier just to replace a rusted-out hitch ball than attempt to clean and recondition it.
- Store your trailer in a dry place. Less exposure to the elements (rain, snow, and temperature changes) means less corrosion occurs on the metal.
Unlevel Coupling Between Towing Vehicle and Trailer
The trailer’s coupler and the truck’s hitch ball should be level. If the hitch coupling points upward, the trailer tongue has too little weight on the hitch ball; the trailer could sway while being towed. If the trailer tongue points down, too much tongue weight forces down on the hitch. This condition means your rear axle will take the brunt of the tow. In addition, the trailer weight will push the truck rather than the truck towing the trailer as it should.
A non-level coupling
There are several things that you can do.
- Redistribute the weight of your trailer. If too much weight is forcing the hitch down too far, relocate some of the heavy items on your trailer away from the front.
- Use a Weight Distribution Hitch - A weight-distributing system can help ease tongue weight by spreading the weight out evenly to all the tow vehicle’s axles. The load-leveling hitch can help keep the bulk of the tongue weight bears down on the rear of your tow vehicle.
- Upgrade the classification of your hitch. If the gross weight limit of your hitch is exceeded, consider upgrading the class of hitch. Most hitch ball trailers take a Class III or IV.
- Know your Weight limits - Many RV owners do not know their gross vehicle weight ratings and often put themselves at risk.
Coupler Stuck On Hitch Ball
Occasionally, the hitch coupler will become stuck on the ball, making the trailer hard to uncouple. This condition can be caused by rust/corrosion that has heated and fused the ball to the inside of the coupler. While it can be a pain when you are trying to disconnect, there are a couple of things to do.
The Coupler is Stuck On the Hitch Ball
Try these solutions.
- Be sure the coupler latch is unlocked. Sometimes the coupler lock slides forward to keep the latch from uncoupling.
- Spray some WD40 with a directional straw on the ball’s surface and into the coupler. Tap the top of the coupler with a rubber mallet to help break any rust binding the coupler to the ball.
- With your trailer chocked, step onto the bumper of your truck to add additional weight to the hitch ball. Your body’s weight will help the ball slip out of the coupler.
- Use the trailer jack stand to raise the trailer. Sometimes the force of the jack raising the tongue will help it break free.